Buksumun (북수문), the northern floodgate, is one of two floodgates that was constructed at Hwaseong Fortress. The other was Namsumun (남수문) which was destroyed by a flood in July 1922.
Flowing through the gate is Suwoncheon, a stream that runs north to south through Hwaseong Fortress. The stream is a tributary of the Hwanggujicheon, which empties into the Yellow Sea.
Construction on the granite structure started on February 28, 1794. It was completed on January 13, 1795.
The sign above reads “Hwahongmun,” which means “the rainbow of Hwaseong.” This is a reference to sight of mist created by water flowing under and through. The sight is considered to be one of the most stunning at Hwaseong Fortress.
The structure also served as a bridge and for other defensive purposes. Cannons used to be located here in case of attack against invaders. Iron bars were also installed at each of the seven arches to prevent unauthorized access. Otherwire, invaders could easily make their way into the fortress undetected.